Hormones And Weight Gain - Your Questions Answered


Elon Musk Reveals Weight Loss Injection Wegovy Helped Him Get Lean and Fit

Posted on: October 14, 2022 in News | Life Science News | Pharmaceutical Marketing News | Pharmaceutical News
By: Ayesha Rashid, PhD

Elon Musk says Novo Nordisk's Wegovy has helped him shed the pounds.

Elon Musk took to his favorite social media outlet Twitter recently to reveal that fasting and Novo Nordisk's obesity drug Wegovy (semaglutide) have been the secrets behind his recent weight loss.

Musk made the revelation in response to a question he received on the social media platform, which he is set to purchase after a long legal battle, about his secret to looking "awesome, fit, ripped & healthy," saying "Fasting" helped him shed the pounds "And Wegovy."

The unexpected endorsement would have been an interestingly nice surprise for Novo Nordisk, which received approval for Wegovy from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) last summer for chronic weight management in adults with obesity (BMI≥30) or who are overweight with at least one weight-related condition (such as high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes or high cholesterol) with a BMI of 27 or greater.

Given that the drug is indicated for people with obesity and specific BMI thresholds, it isn't clear whether Musk should even be taking the drug, making his endorsement somewhat problematic.

For this reason, "these kinds of unexpected endorsements can be a double-edged sword for companies" says Insider.

Related: Mounjaro (tirzepatide), Eli Lilly's Highly Awaited Type 2 Diabetes Injection Gets FDA Nod

Semaglutide is a GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist that was first designed and approved for diabetes management, with Novo having two versions of it, Ozempic and Rybelsus. GLP-1 is involved in the regulation of appetite and caloric intake.

Wegovy is Novo Nordisk's higher-dose injectable form of semaglutide repurposed for chronic weight management.

By acting on the GLP-1 receptor, Wegovy suppresses appetite and delays digestion. It has been shown to lead to a 15 percent to 20 percent loss of body weight over 68 weeks.

Musk is not connected to Novo Nordisk and a spokesperson from the company told Fierce Pharma Marketing that "we were not aware of Elon Musk's use of Wegovy before he shared this information publicly."

A Wegovy rival is in the works from Eli Lilly who submitted a rolling submission to the FDA for its weight loss drug tirzepatide, branded as Mounjaro. The drug was approved in May this year for the management of Type 2 diabetes.

The obesity drug market is a burgeoning sector in pharma, predicted to reach $54 billion by 2030. According to Morgan Stanley Research, obesity treatment could become a top-12 global therapy. Last year alone, Wegovy sales totaled $1.2 billion.

Diabetes drugs repurposed as obesity treatments (along with diet and exercise in most cases) not only target weight, but more and more studies are showing that they can also cut the risk of heart attacks, strokes and cardiovascular deaths by as much as 17 percent.

Candace Burch Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Ever since I went into menopause I feel like I'm living in a different body...and have a much harder time losing weight...is this the new normal?

Menopause is a new normal for women but it need not be a nightmare! The extent to which you are gaining weight and feeling like a stranger in a strange body, is very often tied to how far your hormones are out of whack. Shifting, declining hormones along with a slowing of metabolism are to be expected at menopause, but their effects are made worse by lack of sleep, chronic stress, and exposure to endocrine disruptors (pesticides, BPA, growth hormones in milk, etc.) in the environment.

At the same time additional burden is placed on the adrenal glands as they take over hormone production from the ovaries at menopause. That can lead to tired adrenals that cannot keep up with demand, so this is prime time to start taking better care of ourselves with improved nutrition, sleep, and stress management. We know that cortisol rises when stress rises, triggering us to refuel by eating more. If stress stays high, blood sugars and insulin will stay high with continued overeating, and inevitably, weight gain. It bears mentioning that the belly fat we women love to hate happens to be the body's favorite depot for storing energy reserves, which is why doctors often refer to belly fat as the body's answer to stress.

I think I may be deficient in Vitamin D but I take a multivitamin every day...isn't that enough?

If you are overweight you will want to make sure that you are not D-deficient, given what researchers are finding is a strong association with increased body fat and obesity onset. The so-called 'sunshine vitamin' is actually a 'prohormone' made in the body by the action of sunlight upon the skin. So those of us who live in the grayer, northern altitudes are typically low in D, but deficiency occurs even in sunny climates where you would least expect it, attributed to overuse of sunscreens and covering up against the D-enriching rays of the sun. As humans increasingly spend more time indoors in front of computers, and less time working or exercising outside when the sun is shining, the problem is taking on epidemic proportions. Sensible sun exposure, from15 minutes to a half hour a day can help boost D levels as nature intended.

To circle back to your question about supplementation, the amount of D3 contained in the average multivitamin may not be enough to raise D levels into the healthier ranges. If testing your D levels reveals a deficiency (30 ng/ml or below) talk to your provider about increasing your daily D intake. Supplementing between 2000 and 5000IUs of Vitamin D3 is generally suggested to bring levels into the optimal (50-80 ng/ml) range.

Could an imbalance in Estrogen/Progesterone cause low cortisol? I have low cortisol across the board.

This is certainly to be considered, particularly when there is too much estrogen relative to too little progesterone, an all too common imbalance known as estrogen dominance. This often shows up in the test results of women in menopause and perimenopause, when waning ovaries no longer make estrogen and progesterone in balanced proportions. This is also not atypical in younger women on birth control, with anovulatory (lack of ovulation), or erratic cycles.

Progesterone being high up in the hormonal cascade is also a precursor (source) of primary adrenal hormones, so if it is in short supply, DHEA and cortisol, the key arbiters of adrenal health will also be down with some level of adrenal fatigue to follow. So your question is a good one: imbalances of estrogen and progesterone can and will negatively impact cortisol levels down the line. If you feel this is what's going on with you consider testing your hormone levels to identify hidden imbalances and work with a provider to restore balance naturally.

If a patient is on birth control pills, can a saliva test be accurate?

Hormones levels tested while 'under the influence' of the pill will reflect its' contraceptive effect and test at lower levels than would be the case in the absence of contraception. To get a true baseline level of hormones, it is suggested that birth control be suspended for four to six weeks before collecting hormone samples. Having said that, women who do test their hormones while taking contraceptives may use the results of testing to guide decision making about hormonal vs. non-hormonal birth control methods.

I am estrogen dominant, taking lots of supplements, I do bioidentical progesterone the last 2 weeks of my cycle; I'm perimenopausal, periods now 6 weeks apart, I have really high cortisol in the morning and in the evening, I do yoga, exercise and all the supplements -what else can I do?

Sounds like you are doing many things right, but if you still have depression, weight gain, and stress demands high enough to spike your cortisol levels morning and evening, look to your adrenal glands. These master stress responders need extra support especially during perimenopause when hormonal shifts and fluctuations trigger imbalances that can amplify stress demands upon the body.

Supplements like Vitamins C, B-complex, adaptogenic herbs, and natural progesterone, etc., when taken in the right amounts are essential adrenal supports, and the practice of yoga with its stretching and deep breathing is known to help lower stress hormones. All good, but if as you say your cortisol levels are still high, you may have to drill down a bit more and ask yourself how you are dealing with stress. If you're overworked, overbooked, over-caffeinated, or feeling overwhelmed in general, it's time to take stock of your stress, figure out where it's coming from and how you can alleviate it at the source. That may be as simple as turning off your cellphone after 8pm and going to bed earlier, or as complicated as switching careers and walking away from the 'dream job' that drained you dry.

Lack of sleep by the way is one of the biggest contributors to cortisol imbalance, and a serious disruptor of appetite hormones, leading to sugar cravings and increased hunger. Getting by on just 5 or 6 hours a night will undermine your best efforts to stay healthy and balanced and a number of studies show that 'short sleepers' are more prone to weight gain. Aim for 7 to 8 hours a night at minimum, and "sleep in on the weekends whenever possible," says Dr. James Wilson in his must read book: Adrenal Fatigue, The 21st Century Syndrome.

Do you feel saliva over blood tests is better?

If you want to test active bioavailable hormone levels that correlate more closely to the symptoms you are experiencing, saliva testing can be a better way to go. That's because this method (see also blood spot collection) captures the 'free' fraction of hormone that has left the blood stream to become active in the target tissues of the body; in contrast the standard blood test measures inactive hormones still bound by their carrier proteins in the blood stream. Saliva testing has another big advantage: collection is non-invasive, that is without needles, so all one has to do to collect hormone samples is spit into a tube - a painless change from the stress of a blood draw that can skew results.

My doctor did a blood test and said my hormones are fine and that I'm just depressed. Now I'm on Prozac, and gaining more weight!

I have a one-line response to your comment: Depression is NOT a Prozac deficiency. 

What is the call to action?

In a nutshell; become aware of, and determine your own symptoms of hormone imbalance, test your hormone levels to identify imbalances that match up with the symptoms you are experiencing, and last but not least find a natural hormone friendly provider who will work with you to rebalance your hormones.

A savvy practitioner will test, not guess using hormone test results as a guide to individualizing treatment. After all, each of us has a unique body chemistry, so what works for one woman does not necessarily apply to her friend, sister or next-door neighbor. Today's more enlightened and effective approach to a woman's hormones and weight gain is bound to include lifestyle and dietary improvements, stress lowering techniques, key vitamins, minerals, herbs and/or bioidentical hormones as needed, to replenish and restore balance.

Introducing ZRT's new Fitness Metrics and Elite Athletic Metrics profiles

Dr. Zane HauckWednesday, January 06, 2021

The balance of hormones is essential for all aspects of human health and the same plays true for athletes. Whether you are a beginner working on getting into shape and losing weight, or a seasoned veteran with many competitions under your belt, understanding your hormones and how they change with intense exercise is essential to getting as much as possible out of your training. ZRT Laboratory is launching 2 new kits that will enable athletes to track their hormones and help them better understand the changes happening to their body. In my previous blog, I spoke about why laboratory testing is important for hormone tracking to prevent injury and achieve optimal performance. Here, I am going to introduce ZRT Laboratory's new kits and explain why these particular biomarkers were selected and how they tie into each other.

Fitness Metrics Profile

Our first kit, designed more for the beginner athlete, is called the Fitness Metrics profile. This profile is designed to measure the levels of the 4 main sex steroid hormones estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and DHEA-S, plus cortisol, from a small amount of fingerstick blood dried on a filter card (dried blood spot - DBS). Both estradiol and testosterone can be useful tools in diagnosing overtraining syndrome (OTS) [1]. During exercise, testosterone levels are depleted, but generally rebound after a good night's rest. However, if testosterone (and estradiol in women) stay low, an athlete's susceptibility to injury increases.

DHEA is an important marker as it decreases with age and is viewed as the anti-aging hormone. DHEA helps reduce recovery time, protects joints and bones, and increases stamina [2]. DHEA also reduces bad cholesterol, increases good cholesterol, and neutralizes the effects of cortisol, the stress hormone. In this kit we look at the sulfate form of DHEA, DHEA-S, which is the form in which the body stores DHEA. Progesterone doesn't fluctuate in response to activity like the other hormones, but is still important to track, especially for female athletes. If your progesterone levels are low, this can have negative effects on your health and wellbeing such as anxiety and poor moods, increased susceptibility to PMS, and the possibility of irregular periods, decreased fertility, poor sleep, and less muscular development.

Whether you are a beginner working on getting into shape and losing weight, or a seasoned veteran with many competitions under your belt, understanding your hormones and how they change with intense exercise is essential to getting as much as possible out of your training.

This kit also tests for cortisol, discussed in my previous blog. Cortisol is the stress hormone, released as the end-product of HPA axis activity as it regulates the stress response, and is important for shunting resources where they are needed in stressful situations. The fluctuations in cortisol tend to be limited to short bursts but with increased stress or increased physical activity, these bursts can last longer and longer, making the body less sensitive to these small changes and causing long-term effects. These long-term effects of too much cortisol can reduce protein synthesis, increase abdominal fat, suppress levels of anabolic hormones like growth hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and DHEA-S, affecting fertility and libido, and can lessen glucose usage predisposing to diabetes. This kit takes only one cortisol measurement in the morning about 30 minutes after awakening, when the level should normally be at the peak of the cortisol awakening response, which helps you get out of bed each day. If this level is elevated, it could mean your overall cortisol is high throughout the day and your sleep cycles are not enough to lower it properly. If cortisol is low shortly after awakening your energy level will likely be low and it may have significant effects on your athletic performance. (To get a better understanding of the effects on cortisol, a 4 time point circadian reading gives more information).

The final piece of the puzzle that is important when analyzing steroid hormones in blood, is sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG binds free steroids in the blood and keeps them bound and soluble allowing for transport through the blood vasculature. If sex steroid levels are decreasing while SHBG is increasing, this can be a sign of OTS and should be monitored closely [3].

Monitoring thyroid hormone levels is critical in endurance athletes as most thyroid hormone levels increase right after an event and can take 1-4 days to return to normal afterwards.

Moving on from the sex steroids, we also look at thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH is an important indicator of thyroid health. Thyroid hormones regulate the size and performance of muscles. To boost thyroid hormone levels during exercise, the thyroid needs to be working properly. Over-exercising can increase catabolic hormones like cortisol and adrenaline (epinephrine), and reduce the thyroid's capacity to make thyroid hormone, making daily tasks such as focusing and remembering things more difficult. Underactive thyroid in athletes can reduce blood volume pumped by the heart, decrease fat consumption during muscle contraction, reduce insulin sensitivity, interfere with bone metabolism, and slow down muscle recovery [2]. Thyroid health becomes especially important after sustaining an injury; doctors recommend measuring thyroid levels before resuming activity. Monitoring thyroid hormone levels is critical in endurance athletes as most thyroid hormone levels increase right after an event and can take 1-4 days to return to normal afterwards.

Blood lipids are another important set of biomarkers tested in this profile. Blood lipids are useful in understanding cardiovascular disease risk and how it can be improved by fitness training and diet. Aerobic exercise has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol, the "good" cholesterol, and decrease triglyceride levels. Being able to set a baseline and see your blood lipid levels improve can be an effective strategy for starting and keeping a workout routine.

The final standard test of this profile and probably one of the most important, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, is vitamin D. Vitamin D is important in immune regulation, protein synthesis, inflammatory response, cell growth, and skeletal muscle strength and function. Surprisingly, vitamin D deficiency is not uncommon in athletes due to the body's utilization of vitamin D for muscle repair and recovery. Many studies have shown a link between hospitalization from COVID-19 and vitamin D levels [4]. While vitamin D can't prevent you from getting COVID-19, it may help decrease symptomatology and hopefully prevent a hospital stay.

There are a few add-ons available to the fitness metrics kit that can round out the health picture. These include free T3, free T4 (thyroxine), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab), completing the thyroid picture; insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c­), giving insight into insulin resistance and predisposition to diabetes; C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an indicator of inflammation; and luteinizing hormone (LH). LH plays an important role in the production of estrogens and androgens by stimulating their production. LH steadily declines over time in athletes under an intense training regimen but can rebound quickly during periods of rest and recovery.

Elite Athlete Metrics

Surprisingly, vitamin D deficiency is not uncommon in athletes due to the body's utilization of vitamin D for muscle repair and recovery.

The second new kit offered by ZRT is the Elite Athlete Metrics profile. This is very similar to the Fitness Metrics profile, but adds a 4-point saliva collection in addition to the DBS and offers a few extra goodies. The reason we chose to assess sex hormones and cortisol in saliva rather than blood for this profile is that it gives a better picture of the bioavailable hormones, those not tied up by SHBG and available to be utilized by the target cells. Another benefit of measuring hormones in saliva is that samples can be collected throughout the day non-invasively, so we can make sure that cortisol is following a normal circadian pattern. Looking at cortisol levels throughout the day in this manner allows for a better understanding of whether cortisol patterns are normal after vigorous physical activity to allow for optimal recovery to take place.

This profile also includes all the thyroid hormones together to give a full picture of how the thyroid system is performing. Thyroid levels will increase as a response to training increase and should recover to normal levels once this new training level is stabilized. Just remember that the more you push yourself, the harder your thyroid has to work, so it is important to understand the state of your thyroid health both before beginning a training regimen as well as once fully ensconced in one.

Similarly to the Fitness Metrics profile, this profile provides Vitamin D measurements, which are vital to overall health, especially with winter fast approaching, and allows for the add-on of the blood lipids (which are included as standard in the Fitness Metrics profile) as an option.

Which Profile do I choose?

Choosing the right kit and testing frequency can be tough. I will throw in my 2 cents here as to how I envision this information being used, but you may also consult with your training coach or physical therapist as well to see if they have any insight.

As an athlete that trains year-round, it may be difficult to find a time to establish a baseline. This is best done during a time of prolonged rest, preferably 2 weeks or more. As for myself, I have had very few periods of no activity in the last year that amounts to 2 weeks or more, but it is important to have this baseline established. It can help diagnose injuries before they occur as well allow you to get more out of your training in the future, so it is time well invested. For the baseline test, especially for seasoned athletes, I recommend the Elite Athlete profile. If you are a seasoned athlete you probably don't need the add-on blood lipids, but if you are just beginning your journey or working to shed some weight, then I would recommend the add-ons. If you are new to training, the Fitness Metrics profile will also work well, but make sure to get all the add-ons. The add-ons will help you track your progress toward health and give you the ability to see progress you may not be seeing in the mirror.

If you are coming up on a competition, it could be helpful to get an idea of the state of your hormones to determine the amount of rest that may be needed to perform optimally at the competition.

As for frequency, I would recommend retesting every 3 months at a minimum. After having established a baseline, it is less imperative to get all the add-ons if you are an elite athlete. I would either recommend the basic Elite Athlete Metrics profile or the basic Fitness Metrics profile for these "maintenance" measurements. These are more to ensure everything is still in line and nothing is slowly getting out of whack. If you are a beginner looking more to increase your overall health and lose weight, I would recommend the Fitness Metrics, which includes the blood lipids. This will allow you to track your progress to help keep the motivation there. For any type of athlete, if there were areas of concern with the baseline test, I would recommend making sure those hormones are tested again at the next 3 month "maintenance" test. Once everything is in the healthy range, it is ok to only do the basic tests every 3 months. However, if you are injured or a feeling like you are hitting a wall and can't seem to break through with your training, it may be good to get your testing done more frequently. This will enable you to see why exactly you are hitting a wall and hopefully help prevent any injuries. If you are injured, it would be good to do a "maintenance" test before resuming your activities to make sure you are back to baseline and may want to do the "maintenance" testing a little more frequently thereafter. Finally, if you are coming up on a competition, it could be helpful to get an idea of the state of your hormones to determine the amount of rest that may be needed to perform optimally at the competition. I would suggest testing yourself at least 2 weeks prior to competition so you have adequate time to rest and recover as needed before the competition.

So, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned athlete, hormone testing can be a useful tool to help you achieve your goals and continue to be the best you. Contact a customer service representative at ZRT today to find out how to get started tracking your hormones today!